There are such a lot of completely different causes to put on a watch – particularly these days, when a watch, functionally, has lengthy since turn into an adjunct slightly than a necessity (an early prophet of this period was Andy Warhol, who wore a Cartier Tank which he, famously, by no means bothered to wind). Whether or not this implies we live in an period, horologically talking, of freedom or decadence most likely is determined by who you ask, and it is a level about which watch fans like to argue. The arguments are inclined to boil down to 2 positions, to wit: “Why ought to I care about accuracy? That is for needlessly obsessive, narrow-minded nerds. I’ve my cellphone for that,” and the counterargument, “Why should not I care about accuracy? An inaccurate watch is for (wealthy/useless/shallow) idiots, who do not perceive what actual horology is all about.”
That there are legitimate elements to each positions is one thing you’d most likely by no means guess from the best way the arguments often play out, however in actual fact, each side have a degree (in case you ask me). The watch, maybe, is now not the need that it was, which implies we’re all free to put on them for all kinds of causes that don’t have anything to do with accuracy – nostalgia, vainness, impressing folks, an appreciation for fineness of craft, love of excellent design (when current) and on and on.
However I’ve at all times thought that watchmakers abandon precision at their peril. Inside purpose, after all, a watch that clearly takes excessive precision and legibility as secondary concerns (an openworked ultra-thin watch, as an illustration) should not be held an excessive amount of to account if it is not terribly simple to learn, nor if it fails to maintain time to chronometer requirements. Nevertheless, on a sure degree, taking note of precision and accuracy are a part of the essential social contract, so to talk, between the watch and its proprietor, and the pursuit of enhancements and benefits in precision are nonetheless of curiosity intellectually and emotionally, to some watch fans. And thereby hangs a story: the story of the Citizen Eco-Drive Caliber 0100.
The Eco-Drive Caliber 0100 is, as you undoubtedly are conscious by now in case you’ve gotten this far, essentially the most correct and exact watch ever made, by anybody, anyplace, ever. The acknowledged most deviation claimed for the watch by Citizen is ±1 second per 12 months, which is near the perfect precision ever achieved by excessive precision pendulum clocks (the gold commonplace in each respect for mechanical timekeepers) within the mid-to-late 20th century. We’re so used to getting time from cell gadgets, that are managed to microsecond precision by way of time indicators originating from atomic clocks, that it is simple to seek out such efficiency banal, however to grasp why the Caliber 0100 is so spectacular, it helps to contemplate the issue from a extra in-depth, historic and technical perspective as nicely.
In Pursuit Of Precision
The primary watches and clocks have been hopelessly erratic, typically struggling to maintain time to inside an hour a day, though since their customers typically may right them by checking them towards a sundial, this was not thought of a deadly downside. The usefulness they provided (within the case of clocks, particularly hanging clocks) or the amusement they provided (within the case of the primary watches, which most likely appeared round 1500) have been sufficient to maintain the nascent artwork of mechanical horology alive. The event of the pendulum clock, within the 1650s, confirmed that extra precise timekeeping was certainly potential, however the pendulum isn’t appropriate for a wristwatch (to place it mildly) and so the steadiness was used instead. Nevertheless, it was the appliance of the steadiness spring to the steadiness, within the 1670s, that marked the second when precision timekeeping turned an actual chance in moveable timekeepers as nicely.
A watch or clock is exact to the extent that its oscillator at all times vibrates at precisely the identical frequency; something that disturbs the frequency by definition disturbs the precision of a watch as nicely. In pendulum clocks, better precision was achieved by mechanical refinements, and by more and more isolating the clock from outdoors disturbances. Actually excessive precision pendulum clocks had refinements like quartz or Invar pendulums (supplies with little to no change in dimensions when the temperature fluctuates) and very subtle escapements, they usually have been additionally stored in temperature managed remoted rooms and even underground vaults, away from vibrations and bodily shocks.
This was completely important to their accuracy because the these pendulum clocks have been additionally extremely delicate to exterior influences – essentially the most exact may very well be brought on to wander on their charges by the gravitational tidal forces created by the passage of the Moon overhead. It is a theme we’ll see once more within the Caliber 0100 – as a clock or watch turns into extra exact, you discover you need to take note of results you may mainly ignore in much less high-precision devices. A 10-second a day variation in price, in a pre-balance spring verge watch correct to inside solely twenty minutes a day, could be ignored; in a marine chronometer, it is a recipe for a shipwreck.
Watchmakers, then again, needed to count on that their creations can be uncovered to important temperature modifications, and in addition to modifications in place that will adversely have an effect on efficiency. It was to deal with these issues that improvements like temperature compensating balances, shock safety techniques, the (in)well-known tourbillon, and finally, supplies options like Nivarox and even silicon steadiness springs have been developed. Nevertheless, actual quantum leaps in precision occurred because of basic modifications within the oscillator itself.
As a normal rule, and all different issues being equal, an oscillator vibrating at the next frequency may have better precision than one vibrating at a slower frequency. A steadiness could be made to vibrate pretty rapidly – way more quickly than a pendulum (pendulum clocks typically oscillate as soon as each second or two though different intervals are potential. In case you go to the British Museum, you may see one, by Tompion, with a 13 foot pendulum and a interval of zero.25Hz). The usual for contemporary mechanical watches is 28,800 vibrations per hour, which may also be expressed within the whole variety of full oscillations per second, or Hertz – 28,800 vph is 4Hz. The primary actually main advance in oscillator know-how for watches, and the primary decisive step away from the steadiness and spring, was the Bulova Accutron, which debuted in 1960, and used an electronically pushed tuning fork, oscillating at 360Hz. This resulted a major enchancment in accuracy over nearly all mechanical watches of the time, and the Accutron would go unchallenged for practically one other decade – till quartz oscillators arrived on the scene.
The Quartz Revolution: The Beginning Of Democratic Precision
Quartz watches reap the benefits of an fascinating property of quartz – it’s a so-called piezoelectric materials. A piezoelectric materials will bodily deform once you run a present by it. In case you minimize a quartz crystal to the suitable form and apply an electrical present, it should begin vibrating. Most quartz crystals utilized in watches are minimize within the form of a tuning fork, and their frequency is so excessive, that not like the Accutron, whose tuning fork emitted a faint however clearly audible 360Hz hum, that it is inconceivable to listen to. A piezoelectric materials additionally generates a voltage when it alters its form. Because of this in case you have a quartz crystal vibrating at, say, 32,768Hz, you simply want a circuit that counts the minute improve in voltage related to every oscillation till they add as much as 32,768, after which advance the seconds hand one increment – and you have a watch. (32,768 is a simple quantity to work with as it’s a easy energy of two.)
The primary quartz wristwatch was the Seiko Astron, which was launched on Christmas Day, in 1969. That watch value about as a lot as a then-new Toyota Corrolla, and had a gold case, however as with mechanical watches, economies of scale in addition to wholesale adoption of the know-how throughout your entire business, conspired to drive costs dramatically downward. Not like mechanical watches, nonetheless, a low worth was with quartz watches, now not synonymous with lesser efficiency. Right this moment, most quartz watches are way more alike than completely different, not less than from a fundamental tech perspective. Nearly all have crystals vibrating on the similar frequency: the aforementioned 32,768Hz, or 32.768 kilohertz; that is eight,192 occasions larger than the frequency of the steadiness in a typical mechanical watch. The very first watch movment to have a quartz oscillator vibrating at that frequency was the Girard-Perregaux caliber 350, which had an built-in circuit made by Motorola. The period of true, ubiquitous, low-cost excessive precision had lastly arrived.
Nevertheless, the pursuit of accuracy and better precision was to proceed, albeit on a smaller scale. One of many main areas of analysis was, and continues to be, higher-frequency quartz oscillators. Citizen, lengthy earlier than the Caliber 0100, was a serious innovator on this respect. In 1975, it launched its Crystron Mega-Quartz watch, which had a frequency of four.1MHz – that is four.1 million oscillations per second. Extra exactly, the Mega-Quartz oscillated at four,194,304Hz, which is 1,048,576 occasions quicker than a 4Hz steadiness in a mechanical watch – you begin to see why quartz had an unbeatable benefit. The Mega-Quartz was not solely successful – conserving the crystal, minimize to what’s often known as an AT form (a kind of lozenge) vibrating at such a excessive frequency was a serious drain on the battery, which solely lasted six months or so. However in these six months, you bought unprecedented precision – the watch was rated to an accuracy of three seconds per 12 months. Evaluate that to the ±15 seconds per month typical of much less exact quartz watches, and also you begin to see why the Mega-Quartz was a really, very large deal certainly.
There have been different experiments with what aficionados of the style prefer to name “HAQ” (Excessive Accuracy Quartz) through the years, which included all the pieces from the Omega quartz Marine Chronometer, to the fascinating, surprisingly lovely, and now largely forgotten Pulsar PSR-10, however for some time, it seemed as if actual innovation in larger precision quartz watches was, due to smartphones, roughly a factor of the previous, with no actual potential upside for any model that selected to put money into it. However largely out of the attention of mechanical watch fans, who understandably most well-liked to deal with what they thought of actual watchmaking, main leaps ahead continued to be made.
Larger frequency quartz watches have trickled out in rising numbers in recent times, which embrace the 262KHz “Precisionist” actions from Bulova, and the Longines VHP watches. Grand Seiko continues to steer the sphere in prime quality quartz actions constructed as a lot for longevity as any nice mechanical watch, and with exemplary precision as nicely. Regarded broadly, accuracy in the perfect quartz watches in recent times, could be inside 5 to 10 seconds most annual achieve or loss. However with the introduction of the Caliber 0100, a brand new excessive bar has been set for precision in a watch.
The Eco-Drive Caliber 0100
Whereas the Eco-Drive Caliber 0100 represents a serious achievement, it is also an evolution of current applied sciences – it is a watch, however it’s additionally an announcement about simply how a lot unexplored potential there’s in watchmaking, whether or not quartz or mechanical. By way of precision and accuracy, you may after all get atomic clock ranges of each out of watches that ping the GPS community of satellites for a time sign, or which obtain radio time indicators; nonetheless, for an actual HAQ/excessive precision timekeeping purist, these usually are not a lot watches as they’re receiving and show gadgets. A lot – possibly most – of the curiosity inherent within the Caliber 0100 is straight associated to the truth that it’s unbiased of any exterior timekeeping machine.
How does it do its one-second-per-year factor?
It is generally forgotten that whereas quartz watches are digital gadgets, the quartz crystal itself is definitely a mechanical oscillator – pushed by present slightly than a mainspring, however a mechanical oscillator nonetheless. On the very excessive frequencies at which quartz crystals function they’re typically considerably extra exact than a steadiness and spring, however their price stability can nonetheless be upset by the elements that have an effect on standard mechanical watches.
As we mentioned of pendulum clocks, once you go after better precision, issues you can in any other case ignore should be considered. Each quartz crystal has a barely completely different response to temperature, as an illustration – not one thing that issues a lot in mass produced quartz timepieces, however for a precision instrument, these delicate variations could be of main significance. Tuning fork quartz crystals additionally do exhibit positional price variation as nicely, and bodily impacts can quickly and even completely change the frequency stability of a quartz oscillator. How nicely your entire timing package deal is made can have an effect on stability as nicely – accumulation of contaminants, both from manufacturing processes or from leakage of gasses into the timing package deal, can alter the speed of a quartz oscillator, to offer only one instance.
The Caliber 0100 has a quartz crystal with an AT minimize, which is identical minimize used for the 1975 Crystron – nonetheless, it runs at a a lot larger frequency, at eight,388,608Hz (about eight.4MHz). So far as I’m conscious, that is the very best frequency oscillator that anybody has ever utilized in a quartz watch, and it is 256 occasions larger than the frequency of a traditional quartz watch. The form of the crystal produces a lot smaller amplitude vibrations than a typical tuning fork-shaped quartz crystal, for higher resistance to price disruption attributable to motion and bodily affect (Citizen says that frequency drift attributable to positional modifications is mainly zero) and every crystal in every Caliber 0100 can also be examined for optimum temperature frequency response, to double the precision typically demanded of a traditional quartz crystal. The motion really samples the ambient temperature as soon as per minute, and adjusts the frequency of the crystal to compensate for any temperature induced modifications. AT minimize crystals even have inherently higher price stability throughout typical environmental temperatures than commonplace tuning fork cuts.
There’s nothing miraculous or profoundly revolutionary about any of this, actually; there’s, nonetheless, a mastery of technical fundamentals mixed with a willingness to take the additional pains essential to wring the very highest precision out of the watch, that’s extraordinarily uncommon in both quartz or mechanical watchmaking.
What makes all this sensible in a wristwatch, is that it is potential to mix completely different applied sciences at this level in horological historical past, in a means that it was not up to now. One of the essential keys to the technical success of the Caliber 0100 is energy administration. With a battery lifetime of solely six months, the 1975 Crystron was primarily doomed to be nothing greater than an fascinating, however finally commercially marginal, novelty. It was just too troublesome an issue, within the 1970s, to unravel the problems created by the essential physics of battery life and energy drain from an oscillator operating at such excessive frequencies. Eco-Drive know-how, nonetheless, plus advances in electronics, together with Citizen’s skill to prototype and produce low-power-consumption built-in circuits, signifies that the Caliber 0100 can run its eight.4Mhz crystal mainly indefinitely, so long as it is often uncovered to gentle (the facility reserve in whole darkness is six months).
The Caliber 0100 has quite a lot of different technical options that are supposed to boost and underscore the precision of the essential oscillator know-how. In some respects, it will have made extra sense from a purely sensible standpoint to have an LCD show – vitality consumption can be decrease and there can be fewer shifting elements to exit of order. Nevertheless, for the Caliber 0100, Citizen has opted for a really conventional analog format, and has gone the additional mile to make sure that along with being correct, the watch behaves in different respects as exactly because the oscillator.
For instance, as certain as God made little green apples, if an analog quartz watch has a seconds hand that does not hit the seconds marks lifeless on, you are going to hear about it from disgruntled fans, however there needs to be no grousing on that rating for anybody who has a Caliber 0100. The gear prepare for the seconds hand has a LIGA-fabricated anti-backlash system, to take up play within the gear prepare and guarantee correct place of the seconds hand; the tip of the seconds hand has been gently radiused, with a purpose to scale back parallax error. There’s additionally a slightly nifty anti-shock system; if the watch will get a whack, it is detected by an inside sensor which momentarily freezes the hands in place to stop them from being displaced on their posts, and which then releases them a thousandth of a second later.
On The Wrist
For all that it represents a brand new benchmark for precision in watchmaking, really carrying the Eco-Drive Caliber 0100 is a surprisingly classical expertise – as a matter of truth, if it weren’t for the imperturbable ahead jumps of the seconds hand (which lands with unerring accuracy each time, proper on the seconds marks; a pleasure to behold) you can simply be fooled into pondering that you simply’re carrying a nicer dress watch from the 1950s or early ’60s.
The Eco-Drive Caliber 0100 is available in a number of variants – two in titanium, and one in white gold; the latter is the one we had in for our take a look at drive. With no date window, three hands, and an ivory dial, it appears easy to the purpose of simplistic, however it’s a type of watches the place the longer you may have it on, the extra you get caught up within the little particulars. The fundamental design motif is a crystal, however it’s subtly carried out. The faceted crown, beveled hands, and brushed and polished utilized dial markers in addition to the unobtrusively executed aspects of the case itself, each encourage and reward shut scrutiny, with a degree of consideration to element and high quality of end that some Swiss manufacturers would do nicely to have a look at (for a few years, and to this present day, it continues to amaze me how perfunctory the remedy of dial furnishings and hands could be on generally extraordinarily costly watches; each Rolex and Grand Seiko do very nicely on this respect as nicely).
As a sort of visible paean to precision, the Caliber 0100 is just about all the pieces you can ask for. Although it has an undeniably luxurious really feel, due to all the eye to small particulars, that is not allowed to negate the precision instrument vibe of the watch, which is I feel precisely what you need out of this kind of timepiece. There are not any distractions – no extraneous ornament, actually no date window. Although the Caliber 0100 isn’t a GMT or twin time-zone watch per se, it really works very nicely as a journey watch – the hour hand could be set forwards or backwards in a single hour increments, independently of the minute and seconds hands, which implies you needn’t disrupt your presumably years-long evaluation of its price stability once you journey – or when altering to and from summer season time, in elements of the world that observe daylight financial savings time.
This watch, in white gold, jogged my memory slightly surprisingly of a watch which on the face of it could not be extra completely different from the Caliber 0100 – the Lange & Söhne Saxonia 37mm, which is a watch I spent some time with again in 2016 however which has stayed with me ever since. There is a very exhausting to quantify, however very particular, feeling of getting one thing substantial within the hand, and on the wrist, once you deal with the Lange. Walt Odets, who wrote so fantastically a couple of Lange Saxonia again in 2002, talked about that watch when it comes to density, saying that it felt so substantial that, “… in 5 minutes I all of a sudden felt that there was one thing shabby about all my different watches …”
I would not essentially go as far as to say that the Eco-Drive Caliber 0100 in white gold can positively make a Patek, or Vacheron, or lord is aware of a Lange & Söhne, really feel shabby, however it does not really feel completely out of the query, both, which is astonishing for a quartz wristwatch (you get the identical feeling from a Grand Seiko 9F caliber watch, however not an entire lot else on the planet of piezoelectric oscillators). I have never had an opportunity to deal with this watch in titanium, in both model, and I am undecided I might take care of the mom of pearl dial model in any respect (for all that it appears very nicely carried out in press footage) however in white gold, with its good-looking, expansive dial, the Caliber 0100 appears like one thing with way more everlasting a presence on this world, than one often experiences from a quartz watch.
We speak rather a lot in watch fanatic circles about loads of vaguely outlined, extraordinarily subjective feelings once we attempt to clarify why we love watches typically, or any particular watch particularly – phrases like “soul” get thrown round in a means that will do a Renaissance neoplatonist proud, and naturally, the truth that no one actually is kind of certain what they or the opposite individual means, provides many alternatives for arguments. Nevertheless, I’ll exit on a limb somewhat. I by no means felt that the Eco-Drive Caliber 0100 had soul within the sense we often imply it once we speak about a watch – not within the kind of indefinable vogue that even a brand new mechanical watch of higher high quality appears to have it; that feeling of getting one thing each one way or the other alive and indefinably greater than alive that you simply get from a purely mechanical watch, was absent.
However it had one other sort of presence – if not a soul, then a sentience, an emergent property of the painstaking consideration to precision in each efficiency and execution that Citizen’s put into this watch. While you put on the Caliber 0100, it is simple to neglect it is there, in the best way that one typically forgets about extra classically designed, skinny, dressier-than-not watches, however then you definately look down, and your eye will get drawn in by these delicate aspects and the slight heat of the dial, and then you definately discover that seconds hand hitting the seconds hash marks with bullseye accuracy – bam, bam, bam, lifeless to rights each time; it is like watching a Zen archer put an arrow right into a goal after which break up it with a second one, however sixty occasions per minute. You’re feeling as if you’re watching a daemon of exactness, incarnated within the type of a wristwatch.
Clearly on the subject of pure efficiency, in case you’re a watch knocking down one second per 12 months most deviation when it comes to precision, there is no competitors. Nevertheless, to get again a bit on terra firma, there are actually different choices. That is in spite of everything, even in titanium and particularly in white gold, a reasonably dear piece of package; the titanium fashions will run you the not inconsiderable sum of $7,400 and in white gold, a Caliber 0100 will set you again $16,800 – as a few of my youthful colleagues extra schooled than I in trendy, colourful casual vernacular would say, that is a hell of a flex for a time-only quartz wristwatch.
The obvious competitors comes from Citizen itself. The corporate did not produce the Caliber 0100 out of skinny air or with out precedent; it has been making its “The Citizen” watches for years, in each Eco-Drive and authentic battery-powered flavors and they’re rated by the corporate to maintain time to ±5 seconds per 12 months, which is most outstanding efficiency. They’re, furthermore, comparatively reasonably priced in comparison with the Caliber 0100 – we reviewed one in 2018 that lists for $2,900.
One other chance, in case you’re fascinated about excessive accuracy and excessive precision, is from Breitling, which makes use of temperature compensated SuperQuartz actions in all its digital watches; we seemed on the Colt Skyracer in 2017 and then-HODINKEE editor Louis Westphalen discovered it spectacular sufficient to make it a Worth Proposition. At $2,00zero, it was positively one of many extra engaging values in HAQ quartz however after all, it is each stylistically very completely different from the Caliber 0100, in addition to not competing on the similar degree when it comes to match and end, which is mirrored within the worth (after all you may bang it round such as you most likely would not need to do with the Citizen).
After which, there’s Seiko – Grand Seiko, to be precise. Grand Seiko 9F actions are typically rated to ±10 seconds per 12 months by the corporate, though in 2018, the corporate additionally launched a 25th Anniversary Of 9F mannequin which was adjusted to run to inside ±5 seconds per 12 months, which might be the results of additional refining its already current, meticulous practices for 9F actions – briefly, all the pieces from crystal choice and pre-aging to using temperature compensation, in addition to loads of different refinements far past what you get with a typical quartz watch. Now, within the rigid and unforgiving metric of precision, ±10 seconds and even ±5 seconds a 12 months, isn’t ±1 second a 12 months, and it by no means might be. Anecdotally, the 9F calibers appear to be able to considerably bettering the rated motion efficiency, however that is nonetheless not the identical as guaranteeing, interval, ±1 second a 12 months.
Nevertheless, there’s a lot to be mentioned for, to begin with, getting a quartz watch from the corporate that launched the entire style in 1969 and also you additionally get the well-known Grand Seiko match and end. As an total train within the pursuit of excellence on each degree, each technically and aesthetically, a 9F-equipped Grand Seiko is actually the strongest and most related competitors for the Eco-Drive Caliber 0100. The elemental distinction to me between Grand Seiko and Citizen is that whereas Grand Seiko has at all times felt very a lot an outgrowth of a really characteristically Japanese method to craft (and it takes the pursuit of precision from a craft angle as nicely) Citizen has at all times appeared very a lot a technical powerhouse, with its bewildering number of improvements in all the pieces from light-powered watch know-how, to sensors utilized in its Promaster watches, and on and on. Finally I feel each corporations have their very own distinct character and selecting between the 2 is as a lot a matter of your tackle the general character of the watches. Any single metric – precision or the rest – is an element of an entire which in a very nice watch, should be better than the sum of its elements.
For some of us, carrying essentially the most exact watch anybody has ever made, ever, anyplace, within the final 500 years of watchmaking, can be an incidental thrill, or worse, utterly inconsequential. For others, the thought of paying that a lot cash for a quartz watch – any quartz watch – can be at greatest risible, and at worst contemptible. However I acquired such an enormous kick out of carrying it as you may scarcely think about.
I feel loads of the way you react to this watch is determined by, bluntly put, how a lot you discover the pursuit of precision as an finish in itself, genuinely thrilling. On a private be aware, I first acquired fascinated about watches as options to sure sensible issues in physics; aesthetics have been a secondary consideration. That was an extended time in the past and I prefer to suppose I’ve realized, through the years, for causes each private and professional, to have a look at watches not solely from a broader perspective, but additionally to attempt to perceive every watch I take a look at and write about by itself phrases. The query for me as a watch author is at all times extra, “what is that this watch attempting to be, and the way nicely does it succeed at it?” than, “do I like this watch?” The latter query is the one related one to a possible purchaser, however as critics and fans, I feel the previous makes for a way more fascinating dialog.
It is a distinctive watch when it comes to efficiency. As a watch, nonetheless, it is like another watch; you reply not simply to its technical properties, however to how nicely the entire thing hangs collectively, and the way nicely the aesthetics specific the technical soul (or chilly sentience, because the case could also be) of the watch. On these standards, and when it comes to succeeding in being the sort of watch it strives to be, I feel Citizen has hit a house run. In white gold, the Citizen Eco-Drive Caliber 0100 appears like nothing else I’ve ever seen on my wrist. It’s as near perfection as a wristwatch has ever come when it comes to accuracy, and at first look, it appears apparent that it is a watch whose clear and rapid attraction is to actual dyed-in-the-wool precision experts. However a lot human effort and ingenuity went into it, and its precision is a lot a results of a very artisanal method, that I feel it has a lot to supply to the open-minded lover of excessive finish mechanical horology as nicely.
What wouldn’t it take to beat the Caliber 0100? You possibly can at all times additional refine the pursuit of accuracy from a quartz oscillator – though I wrestle to think about bettering one second a 12 months efficiency, I suppose it is potential – however I think that the subsequent quantum leap ahead in precision, in autonomous timekeeping, goes to return from chip-scale atomic clocks. Such gadgets current the identical issues that quartz watches as soon as did – energy consumption and measurement at present preserve atomic clocks from turning into atomic watches. If horological historical past has taught us something, it is that such issues have a means of yielding to assault, eventually; there isn’t any means of figuring out whether or not or not atomic wristwatches – sensible ones, that may be produced to a point at scale – are months, years, or many years away. Nevertheless, till then, it appears possible that for the foreseeable future, the Caliber 0100 will reign as horology’s uncontested king of precision.
For full specs and pricing on all variations of the Citizen Eco-Drive Caliber 0100, take a look at our Introducing put up; and for much more, test it out at Citizenwatch.com.